Seminar: ISE graduate student colloquiums
Title: Controlling the costs of coordination in large scale distributed critical digital networks
Presenter: Laura Maguire
Committee members: David Woods (advisor), Mike Rayo, Phil Smith
Abstract: Distributed software systems provide critical services to almost all business sectors today which allow these businesses to operate at much larger scales (both speed and number of transactions). These IT systems undergo continuous change and growing interdependencies through ongoing deployments of new code to expand capabilities and meet expanding service demands (Allspaw, 2016). Responding to anomalies in this domain involves coordination across a distributed system of automated subsystems and multiple human roles. The existing research has shown coordinated joint activity has costs. While multiple roles are needed to resolve anomalies, bringing in more players also adds burdens that slow down and degrade the cognitive work of anomaly response. Understanding how tools, technologies, and practices support smooth coordination or add extra burdens that undermine distributed anomaly response is a pressing need for human-machine system design (e.g., the findings in Woods, 2017). This research uses process tracing analysis across a corpus of cases to understand what mechanisms practitioners use to control the costs of coordination within large scale distributed work systems as they carry out the functions of anomaly response under uncertainty, risk, and pressure.
Title: Investigating computer users' biomechanical load and posture in response to cognitive workload
Presenter: Vikrin Wang
Committee members: Steven Lavender (advisor), Carolyn Sommerich, Michael Rayo
Abstract: The etiology of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among office workers is complex and multi-factorial. Extended use of computers has been indicated as one of the risk factors that are associated with the high prevalence of the MSD symptoms, such as pain in neck and lower back. Computer-based tasks impose both physical and cognitive demands on the workers. Relative to the research on physical demands, the literature addressing how cognitive demands can affect biomechanical load is very limited. Prior research indicated there is potential association between higher cognitive workload and increased biomechanical responses. Time pressure is also identified as a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck/shoulder region. While prior research has identified office work as contributing to musculoskeletal disorders, the existing research hasn’t identified specifically how the three cognitive workload dimensions (i.e. mental demand, mental effort and actual task performance) are associated with the biomechanical loads experienced by computer users, and hence, potentially contribute to injury development. A further understanding about the connections between cognitive load and biomechanical load imposed on office computer users is helpful for the development of effective workplace interventions that target the complex interactions of cognitive and physical risk factors. The objective of this study is to explore how the three assessment dimensions of cognitive demand, namely, mental demand, mental effort, and task performance measures, can be associated with the variations of biomechanical load experienced by the workers.
Title: Analysis of Operation and Investment in Power Systems and Electricity Markets
Presenter: Kenjiro Yagi
Committee members: Ramteen Sioshansi (advisor), Antonio Conejo, Huanxing Yang
Abstract: Increasing penetration of variable renewable energy (PV, wind) creates many challenges and questions in power systems and electricity markets. This research focuses on three important questions that are not yet answered. First topic is the investment problem for hydro-rich power system with high renewable penetration. Selection of representative days and usage of mathematical decomposition techniques are the focus of this work. The second topic is about the profitability of coal plants when more renewables are installed in the system. This work utilizes game-theoretic model to quantify the impact of having more renewables on coal profitability. The third topic is about the capacity value of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP). The existing literature shows that CSP has high capacity value under current power systems. We develop a new metric to evaluate capacity value of CSP in the future with more renewables.
Title: Investigation of Optical Effects of Chalcogenide Glass in Precision Glass Molding and Applications on Infrared Micro Optical Manufacturing
Presenter: Lin Zhang
Committee members: Allen Yi (advisor), Jose Castro, Jerald Brevick
Abstract: Precision glass molding (PGM) is being considered as an alternative to traditional methods of manufacturing large-volume, high-quality and low-cost optical components. In this process, glass optics is fabricated by replicating optical features from precision molds to glass at elevated temperature. Chalcogenide glasses are emerging as alternative infrared materials for their wide range infrared transmission, high refractive index, high nonlinearity and low phonon energy. In addition, chalcogenide glasses can be readily molded into precision optics at elevated temperature, slightly above its glass transition temperature (Tg), which in general is much lower compared to oxide glasses.